Aki Ra, Enfant Soldat

« Je m’appelle Aki Ra. Mais tout le monde me surnomme maintenant Akira, en référence au prénom japonais. Il paraît que je suis né en 1973. J’avais cinq ans lorsque mes parents furent tués. A l’âge de dix ans, on m’a donné un fusil et je suis devenu soldat. Au Cambodge, on dénombrerait plus de six millions de mines encore enfouies dans le sol. Dont certaines que j’ai moi-même placées.« 

Pas besoin d’autre résumé : ainsi commence Enfant Soldat, la véritable histoire d’Aki Ra, que le mangaka Akira Fukaya a mise en images en 2006 (2009 pour l’édition française – Delcourt).

Ayant survécu à la guerre, et devenu adulte, l’enfant soldat a décidé de consacrer sa vie au déminage, qu’il effectue gratuitement pour les paysans de sa région. En 2006, il avait déjà désamorcé plus de 25.000 mines. Aki Ra a également créé, de ses propres mains, un musée de la mine, à proximité du temple d’Angkor Vat, qui attire de nombreux touristes. Il explique simplement ce qu’est la réalité du Cambodge, sclérosé par ce mal endémique : les champs de mines, et les dégâts qu’ils continuent de faire sur la population.

Un des touristes qui ont visité le petit musée s’appelle Akira Fukaya. Il est mangaka. Bouleversé par cette découverte, et tombé sous le charme de ce héros simple, Aki Ra, qui porte presque le même nom que lui, il a décidé d’en relayer le témoignage, de la seule façon qu’il sache : en faisant un manga.

On en a lu des mangas, à la pelle, où des enfants de 14 ans pilotent des méchas ou d’autres engins militaires, et se battent contre des extra-terrestres, des monstres ou des super-méchants. Mais ici, tout est vrai : l’enfant soldat se bat parce que des adultes en ont décidé ainsi, et il tue pour de vrai avec son AKA-47, pose des mines pour de vrai, est blessé pour de vrai, et voit ses camarades du même âge faire la même chose, et mourir dans d’atroces souffrances.

Les méchants sont de vrais hommes, non des robots ou des aliens, et ils tuent pour rien, au nom d’une idéologie, celui qui a volé un fruit, celui qui a soutenu un regard, celui qui n’a pas applaudi l’exécution d’un « traître ».

Akira Fukaya dessine cela en vrai mangaka, avec les codes du manga, sans rien omettre, mais avec une sensibilité et une pudeur qui place le lecteur à hauteur d’enfant, parfois incrédule devant sa propre violence. Ce qui frappe également, c’est comment Aki Ra, le héros (car c’est un vrai héros) se découvre progressivement un destin : celui de survivre, à tout prix, même aux pires compromissions, pour un jour défaire le mal qu’il a fait. Le courage d’Aki Ra symbolise celui de millions d’autres hommes qui ont décidé de se reconstruire, pour reconstruire leur pays dans la paix. Une scène est, à ce titre, absolument bouleversante : celle où, vingt ans après, il rencontre le Khmer Rouge qui a tué ses parents. Il pourrait le condamner, ou au contraire lui pardonner, mais non. Beaucoup plus simplement, il lui dit : « Je suis comme vous. Moi aussi, j’ai du sang sur les mains. Donc, plutôt que vous haïr, j’aimerais être votre ami. » Les deux hommes se serrent les mains, en larmes.

Avec l’accord d’Aki Ra, Akira Fukaya a introduit quelques passages de fiction, pour faciliter la compréhension du lecteur. Quelques personnages ont ainsi été inventés, mais basés sur d’autres, réels. Les paroles et les actes qui leurs sont attribués servent à illustrer des souvenirs réels d’Aki Ra. Il en résulte un récit à la fois authentique, pédagogique (des encadrés hors texte et quelques photos éclairent certains passages, et les situent dans le contexte historique et politique), et émouvant.

Aujourd’hui, Pol Pot est mort, le Cambodge juge les plus hauts responsables Khmer devant des tribunaux civils. Les mines sont toujours là, mêmes si des hommes comme Aki Ra les désamorcent une par une.

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